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Eli
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced surgical procedure using endoscopy to remove gastrointestinal tumors that have not entered the muscle layer. ESD may be done in the esophagus, stomach or colon. Application of endoscopic resection (ER) to gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms is limited to lesions with no risk of nodal metastasis. Either polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is beneficial for patients because of its low level of invasiveness. However, to ensure the curative potential of these treatment modalities, accurate histopathologic assessment of the resected specimens is essential because the depth of invasion and lymphovascular infiltration of the tumor is associated with considerable risk for lymph node metastasis. For accurate assessment of the appropriateness of the therapy, en bloc resection is more desirable than piecemeal resection. For a reliable en bloc resection of GI neoplasms, a new method of ER called endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been developed. The ESD technique has developed from one of the EMR techniques, namely endoscopic resection after local injection of a solution of hypertonic saline-epinephrine (ERHSE). Initially, the ESD technique was called by various names such as cutting EMR, exfoliating EMR, EMR with circumferential incision etc. However, a new name was proposed to this technique in 2003, as a treatment positioned between EMR and laparoscopic surgery, since this technique is innovative and enables complete resection of neoplasms that were impossible to resect en bloc by EMR.

http://www.soudonmed.com/endoscopic-submucosal-dissection/
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Hot dipped galvanized steel pipes are made by reacting the molten metal with the iron matrix to produce an alloy layer, so that the matrix and the coating are combined. Hot-dip galvanizing is to first pickle the steel pipe to remove iron oxide on the surface of the steel pipe. After pickling, it is cleaned in a tank of ammonium chloride or zinc chloride aqueous solution or a mixed aqueous solution of ammonium chloride and zinc chloride, and then sent to a hot dip plating tank. Hot-dip galvanizing has the advantages of uniform coating, strong adhesion and long service life. The hot-dip galvanized steel pipe substrate undergoes complex physical and chemical reactions with the molten bath to form a corrosion-resistant zinc-iron alloy layer with a tight structure. The alloy layer is integrated with the pure zinc layer and the steel pipe matrix, so it has strong corrosion resistance. Hot dipped galvanized steel pipes are widely used in construction, machinery, coal mines, chemicals, electric power, railway vehicles, automobile industry, highways, bridges, containers, sports facilities, agricultural machinery, petroleum machinery, prospecting machinery, greenhouse construction and other manufacturing industries.

http://www.ruijiesteelpipe.com/galvanized-steel-pipe/hot-dipped-galvanized-steel-pipe/